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What Is The Paris Peace Agreement


The Germans rejected the French offers because they saw the French overtures as a trap to get them to accept the Treaty of Versailles unchanged; German Foreign Minister Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau was also of the opinion that the United States could reduce the severity of the peace treaty rather than France. [30] In the end, it was Lloyd George who lobbied for better conditions for Germany. The Paris Peace Conference was held in January 1919 in Versailles in front of the Vorniste of Paris. The conference was convened to set the conditions for peace after the First World War. Although nearly thirty nations participated, representatives from the United Kingdom, France, the United States and Italy became known as the «Big Four». The «Big Four» dominated the procedures that led to the formulation of the Treaty of Versailles, a treaty that ended World War I. The most important decisions were the creation of the League of Nations; the five peace treaties with defeated enemies; the granting of German and Ottoman possessions abroad as «mandates», in particular to members of the British Empire and France; Reparations imposed on Germany and the drawing of new national borders (sometimes with referendums) to better reflect the forces of nationalism. The main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, which in Article 231 blamed the war on «the aggression of Germany and its allies.» This provision proved humiliating for Germany and prepared the conditions for very high reparations that Germany had to pay (it paid only a small part before the end of the reparations in 1931). The Paris Peace Conference was the official meeting of the victorious Allies in 1919 and 1920 after the end of World War I to determine the terms of peace for the defeated Central Powers. Dominated by the leaders of Britain, France, the United States and Italy, it led to five controversial treaties that reorganized the map of Europe and imposed financial sanctions. Germany and the other losing nations had no voice, leading to decades of political resentment.

According to Finnish historian Jussi Hanhimäki, because of the triangular diplomacy that isolated it, South Vietnam was «put under pressure to accept an agreement that virtually ensured its collapse.» [21] During the negotiations, Kissinger stated that 18 months after an agreement, the United States would not intervene militarily, but could intervene beforehand. In the historiography of the Vietnam War, this has been called a «decent interval.» [22] Japan`s claim to Shantung faced strong protests from the Chinese patriotic student group. By 1914, at the beginning of the war, Japan had conquered the territory allocated to Germany in 1897 and had also conquered the German Pacific islands north of the equator. By 1917, Japan had concluded secret agreements with Britain, France, and Italy to secure their annexation of these territories. There was an agreement with Britain to support the British annexation of the Pacific islands south of the equator. Despite a generally pro-Chinese view of the U.S. delegation, Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles transferred German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay, China, to Japan instead of returning sovereign authority to China. The head of the Chinese delegation, Lou Tseng-Tsiang, demanded that a reservation be inserted before the contract was signed. After the rejection of the reservation, the treaty was signed by all delegations except the Chinese delegations. Chinese outrage at this provision has led to protests known as the Fourth May Movement.

The Pacific islands north of the equator became a Class C mandate administered by Japan. [46] A provisional armistice agreement was concluded in October 1972. The agreement provided for the simultaneous withdrawal of the United States.