Trade Agreements And Social Policy
Hiscox, M., &Hainmueller, J. (2006). Learning about globalization: the impact of education on individual attitudes towards international trade. International Organization, 60.2, 469-498. In order to ensure continued domestic and international support for an open trading system, the obligation to redistribute the benefits of trade itself could be included in trade agreements (Meyer 2017). In this way, governments would make commitments not only to workers, but also to their trading partners, who would otherwise be concerned about trade restrictions, more credible. Globalization intensified in the 2000s. The global value chain (GCC) revolution (business activities and parts instead of goods) was hailed as a new development path for developing countries and deemed obsolete. This triggered a network of new bilateral and plurilateral trade agreements that would allow for more efficient use of CVGs. Agreements should include low tariff obligations and, preferably, zero per cent; efficient, transparent and inexpensive customs administration to ensure that certain parties cross borders quickly; investment protection to facilitate the decentralization of production; improving the protection of intellectual property; liberalization of services (including temporary entry visas for businessmen); harmonization and mutual recognition of regulatory standards to eliminate non-tariff barriers; and competition standards to address abuses where the GCC operates. Transnational corporations have sought and obtained legal provisions enabling them to coordinate their global activities and improve their global competitiveness. This would allow them to more effectively combine their capital and know-how with workers in developing countries to maximize profits.
Bailey, M. (2001). Silent Influence: The Representation of Diffuse Interests in Trade Policy, 1983-94. Quarterly Legislative Studies, 26(1), 45-80. Developing countries oppose the link between trade and labour and environmental standards at the multilateral level (Cross 2006). Nevertheless, developing countries are increasingly signing SAAs with industrialized countries that contain such clauses. This is because bilaterally developed countries have greater bargaining power and developing countries have to compete for access to their lucrative markets (Chan and Ross in 2003). Jinnah, S., &Morgera, E.
(2013). Environmental provisions in US-EU free trade agreements: a preliminary programme of comparison and research. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law., 22(3), 324-339. Milner, H., &Mansfield, E. D. (2012). Votes, vetoes and the political economy of international trade agreements. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Morin, J.-F., &Rochette, M.
(2017). Transatlantic convergence of preferential trade agreements environmental clauses. Economy and Politics, 19(4), 621-658. However, these new possibilities have their drawbacks. Since companies are able to produce and trade more efficiently from abroad, they can threaten offshore jobs if workers insist on higher wages and better working conditions. Similarly, they play governments against one another and threaten to invest abroad if taxes on capital are not reduced and subsidies are not increased. . . .